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Herbicide resistance problems

How does herbicide resistance occur?

There are two types of herbicide resistance in black-grass; target site (TSR) and non-target site herbicide resistance (NTSR). 

TSR occur through the mutations in proteins targeted by herbicide that reduce their effectiveness at their site of action.

NTSR is a collective term referred to resistance mechanisms other than TSR, typically relating to enhanced detoxification of herbicides. 

NTSR varies in degree between black-grass populations and can evolve differently in response to herbicides and other weed control strategies

NTSR black-grass populations are difficult to control as they are resistant topost-emergence herbicides irrespective of their mode of action; current classes affected include including phenylurea (PU), sulphonylurea (SU), aryloxyphenoxypropionates (FOP) and cyclohexanedione (DIM) classes.

How can we identify NTSR black-grass?

A specific protein called glutathione transferase ‘AmGSTF1’ has been identified by Prof Robert Edwards’ research group at Newcastle whose expression has found to be elevated in all  NTSR populations of black-grass identified to date.

The concentrations of AmGSTF1 in black-grass can be used to assess the level of herbicide resistance exhibited in NTSR black-grass populations

In the lateral follow devices, AmGSTF1 is used as a quantitative functional biomarker of NTSR; the more protein it detects the more resistant the black-grass. 

The lateral flow devices can detect the levels of AmGSTF1 protein in black-grass within 5 minutes

What is the benefit of detecting NTSR black-grass using LFDs?

A technology that works on farm and gives new data within minutes of testing

An accurate identification of NTSR black-grass is the first step for planning effective grass-weed control

A real-time detection of Non-Target Site Resistance (NTSR) black-grass provides information for growers to make immediate adjustments to black-grass control and to monitor the effectiveness of strategies to tackle it

A quick and easy to use detection method enables growers to map NTSR black-grass in different areas of the fields within hours.

A decision tool to predict the likely effectiveness of post-emergence herbicide treatment prior to application

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